DOI: https://doi.org/10.11649/ch.2018.010

Russian: A Monocentric or Pluricentric Language?

Tomasz Kamusella

Abstract


Russian: A Monocentric or Pluricentric Language?

All the world’s ‘big’ languages of international communication (for instance, English, French or Spanish) are pluricentric in their character, meaning, that official varieties of these languages are standardized differently in these states where the aforesaid languages are in official use. The only exception to this tendency is Russian. Despite the fact that Russian is employed in official capacity in numerous post-Soviet states and in Israel, it is still construed as a monocentric language whose single and unified standard is (and must be) solely controlled by Russia. From the perspective of sovereignty, this arrangement affords Moscow a degree of influence and even control over culture and language use in these countries where Russian is official. This fact was consciously noticed and evoked some heated discussions in Ukraine after the Russian annexation of the Ukrainian region of Crimea in 2014. However, thus far, the discussions have not been translated into any official recognition of (let alone encouragement for) state-specific varieties of the Russian language.

 

Rosyjski: język monocentryczny czy pluricentryczny?

Wszystkie „duże” języki komunikacji międzynarodowej na świecie (na przykład angielski, francuski lub hiszpański) są pluricentryczne, czyli oficjalne odmiany tych języków są inaczej standaryzowane w tych państwach, w których te języki są używane jako oficjalne. Jedynym wyjątkiem w tym zakresie jest język rosyjski. Pomimo faktu, że rosyjski funkcjonuje jako język oficjalny w wielu państwach postsowieckich oraz w Izraelu i Mongolii, to nadal uważa się go za język monocentryczny, którego normatywnie jednolity standard jest (i musi być) kontrolowany wyłącznie przez Rosję. Układ ten sprzeczny jest z zasadą suwerenności, bowiem zapewnia on Moskwie wpływ, a nawet kontrolę nad kulturą i używaniem języka w tych krajach, w których rosyjski to język urzędowy. Fakt ten został świadomie zauważony i wywołał gorące dyskusje w Ukrainie po rosyjskiej aneksji ukraińskiego regionu Krymu w roku 2014. Jak dotąd dyskusje te jednak nie przełożyły się na żadne oficjalne uznanie przez ukraińskie władze (nie mówiąc już o konkretnym
wsparciu) ukraińskiej odmiany języka rosyjskiego.


Keywords


de-ethnicization; hybrid war; language politics; monocentric languages; non-Russian Russophones; pluricentric languages, Russian language; Russophone states; Russo-Ukrainian war; state varieties of Russian

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