DOI: https://doi.org/10.11649/ch.2019.018

The Vow to Testify: On the Gulag and Intertextual Economy of Literature (Karlo Štajner, Varlam Shalamov, Danilo Kiš)

Danijela Lugarić Vukas

Abstract


The Vow to Testify: On the Gulag and Intertextual Economy of Literature (Karlo Štajner, Varlam Shalamov, Danilo Kiš)

Departing from the “aesthetics of unrepresentability” of testimonial literature and implied “belatedness and collapse of witnessing” (G. Agamben, Sh. Felman, D. Laub), the paper engages in the economic foundations of literature through analysis of symbolic meanings of economic metaphors in Štajner’s memoirs Seven Thousand Days in Siberia and Shalamov’s story Lend-Lease, and through illuminating different aspects of intertextual and intercultural exchange between Štajner’s memoirs and Kiš’s “pseudo-factual” fiction A Tomb for Boris Davidovich. What is testimony and can it be – considering the nature of the one who testifies and the language in which he testifies – “valid,” “valuable,” “useful,” to use the language of economy? Can we think about Kiš’s literary appropriation of Štajner’s memoirs as an outlet for reclaiming the voice not only of Štajner, but also of Kiš’s father, who perished in Auschwitz? What are the uses of economic hypothesis in literary studies?

 

Zavjet svjedočenja: o Gulagu i intertekstualnoj ekonomiji književnosti (Karlo Štajner, Varlam Šalamov, Danilo Kiš)

Polazeći od “estetike neizrecivosti” književnosti svjedočenja te implicirane “zakašnjelosti i kolapsa svjedočenja” (G. Agamben, Sh. Felman, D. Laub), rad prilazi složenoj problematici ekonomskih temelja književnosti kroz analizu simboličkog značenja ekonomskih metafora u Štajnerovim memoarima 7000 dana u Sibiru i Šalamovljevoj znamenitoj priči Po Lend-Leasu te kroz intertekstualni i interkulturni upis Štajnerovih memoara u Kiševu “pseudočinjeničnu” fikciju u djelu Grobnica za Borisa Davidoviča. Što je svjedočenje i može li ono biti – s obzirom na status svjedoka kao subjekta izricanja i jezik na kojem svjedoči – “valjano” i “korisno” (iskoristimo li jezik ekonomije)? Može li se o Kiševoj aproprijaciji Štajnerovih memoara razmišljati kao o jednom od načina vraćanja prava glasa ne samo Štajneru, nego i Kiševom preminulom ocu, stradalom u Auschwitzu? U čemu je epistemološka korist ekonomskih analiza u proučavanju književnosti?

 

Przysięga świadectwa: O gułagu i intertekstualnej ekonomii literatury (Karlo Štajner, Warlam Szałamow, Danilo Kiš)

Wychodząc naprzeciw koncepcjom mówiącym o „poetyce niewyrażalności” literackich świadectw oraz założeniu o „spóźnieniu i upadku świadectwa” (G. Agamben, Sh. Felman, D. Laub), artykuł podejmuje problematykę ekonomicznych podstaw literatury poprzez analizę znaczeń (symboli) metafor ekonomicznych w pamiętniku Siedem tysięcy dni na Syberii Karlo Štajnera oraz opowiadaniu Z lend lease’u Warłama Szałamowa, a także poprzez wskazanie na różne aspekty intertekstualnej i międzykulturowej wymiany pomiędzy wspomnieniami Štajnera a fikcyjną literaturą „pseudo-faktu” Danilo Kiša w książce Grobowiec dla Borysa Dawidowicza. Czym jest świadectwo i czy może być – biorąc pod uwagę to, kim jest świadek i język, w którym daje świadectwo – „ważne”, „wartościowe”, „użyteczne”, używając języka ekonomii? Czy możemy zinterpretować literackie przywłaszczenie wspomnień Štajnera dokonane przez Kiša jako jeden ze sposobów przywracania prawa głosu nie tylko Štajnerowi, ale także ojcu Kiša, który zginął w Auschwitz? Jakie są zastosowania hipotezy ekonomicznej w literaturoznawstwie?


Keywords


economy; GULAG; witness; testimony; Štajner; Shalamov; Kiš; (post)memory

Full Text:

PDF (in English)

References


Agamben, G. (1999). Remnants of Auschwitz: The witness and the archive. New York, NY: Zone Books.

Applebaum, A. (2003). Gulag: A history. New York, NY: Anchor Books.

Beganović, D. (2007). Pamćenje trauma: Apokaliptična proza Danila Kiša. Zagreb: Naklada Zoro.

Birnbaum, M. D. (1989). History and human relationships in the fiction of Danilo Kis. Cross Currents, 8, 345–360.

Boym, S. (2010). Another freedom: The alternative history of an idea. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226069753.001.0001

Brodsky, I. (2010). Introduction. In D. Kiš, A tomb for Boris Davidovich (pp. ix–xvii). Normal, IL: Dalkey Archive Press. (1st edition 1980).

Crnković, G. P. (2000). Literature against the closures of language: “A tomb for Boris Davidovich” by Danilo Kiš and “Silence” by John Cage. In G. P. Crnković (Ed.), Imagined dialogues: Eastern European literature in conversation with American and English literature (pp. 15–62). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Czarny, N. (1984). Imaginary-real lives: On Danilo Kiš (C. Vincent, Trans.). Cross Currents, 3, 279–284.

Debeljak, A. (2013–2014). Durable fiction: Danilo Kiš and his library. IWM Post, 2013–2014(112 (winter)), 21–22.

Đorđić, S. (1980). Sugestivnost uvećanja. In B. Krivokapić (Ed.), Treba li spaliti Kiša? (p. 33). Zagreb: Globus. (1st edition 1976).

Eaglestone, R. (2002). Identification and the genre of testimony. Immigrants & Minorities: Historical Studies in Ethnicity, Migration and Diaspora, 21(1–2), 117–140. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619288.2002.9975035

Felman, S., & Laub, D. (1992). Testimony: Crises of witnessing in literature, psychoanalysis, and history. New York, NY: Routledge.

Gorjup, B. (1994, March 22). Textualizing the past: The function of memory and history in Kis's fiction. Review of Contemporary Fiction. Retrieved from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Textualizing+the+past%3a+the+function+of+memory+and+history+in+Kis%27s...-a015075774

Halpert-Zamir, L. (1992). Danilo Kiš: Jedna bolna, mračna odiseja. Beograd: Anteum.

Hirsch, M. (2008). The generation of postmemory. Poetics Today, 29(1), 103–128. https://doi.org/10.1215/03335372-2007-019

Hörisch, J. (2000). Heads or tails: The poetics of money (A. H. Marschall, Trans.). Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.

Jelača, D., & Lugarić, D. (2018). The “radiant future” of spatial and temporal dis/orientations. In J. Bailyn, D. Jelača, & D. Lugarić (Eds.), The future of (post)socialism: Eastern European perspectives (pp. 1–16). New York, NY: SUNY Press.

Jeremić, D. M. (1981). Narcis bez lica. Beograd: Nolit.

Jukić, T. (2013). Between Auschwitz and Siberia: James Joyce, Danilo Kiš, and a zoning of totalitarianism. In A. O'Malley & E. Patten (Eds.), Ireland, West to East: Irish cultural connections with Central and Eastern Europe (pp. 135–158). Oxford: Peter Lang.

Kiš, D. (1980). Banalnost je neuništiva kao plastična boca. In B. Krivokapić (Ed.), Treba li spaliti Kiša? (pp. 67–77). Zagreb: Globus. (1st edition 1976).

Kis, D. (1988, July 10). Siberia taught him a few things: An “enemy of the people” returns. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/1988/07/10/books/siberia-taught-him-a-few-things-an-enemy-of-the-people-returns.html?pagewanted=1

Kiš, D. (2001). A tomb for Boris Davidovič (D. Mikić-Mitchell, Trans.). Normal, IL: Dalkey Archive Press.

Kiš, D. (2008). Čas anatomije. Sarajevo: Međunarodni centar za mir.

Krivokapić, B. (Ed.). (1980). Treba li spaliti Kiša? Zagreb: Globus.

Lachmann, R. (2006). Danilo Kiš: Factography and thanatography (A tomb for Boris Davidovich, Psalm 44, The Hourglass). Partial Answers, 4(2), 219–238. https://doi.org/10.1353/pan.0.0114

Laplanche, J., & Pontalis, J.-B. (2006). Language of psycho-analysis (D. Nicholson-Smith, Trans.). London: Karnac Books.

Longinović, T. Z. (2013). Granična kultura: Politika identiteta u četiri slovenska romana 20. veka (D. Mitrović Longinović, Trans.). Beograd: Službeni glasnik.

Majić, I. (2017). Pripovjedna (ne)moć sjećanja: Analiza književnog djela Meše Selimovića. Zagreb: Zavod za znanost o književnosti & Hrvatska sveučilišna naklada.

Mandić, I. (1980). Potresne (neizmišljene) priče. In B. Krivokapić (Ed.), Treba li spaliti Kiša? (pp. 25–26). Zagreb: Globus. (1st edition 1976).

Maroević, T. (2016). Između Borhesa i Štajnera. In R. V. Ivanović (Ed.), Danilo Kiš: Osamdeset godina od rođenja (1935-2015) (pp. 91–97). Podgorica: Crnogorska akademija nauka i umjetnosti.

Matvejević, P. (1980). Historija, fikcija, intriga. In B. Krivokapić (Ed.), Treba li spaliti Kiša? (pp. 20–23). Zagreb: Globus.

Osteen, M. (1995). The intertextual economy. In M. Osteen (1995), The economy of Ulysses: Making both ends meet (pp. 203–249). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Petzer, T. (2007, June 6). Olimp vorov: Fikasacija sledov u Varlama Šalamova i Danilo Kiša. Ostoeuropa, 205–220. Retrieved from https://shalamov.ru/research/61/8.html#n77

Ricoeur, P. (1980). Chapter 3: The hermeneutics of testimony (D. Stewart & C. E. Reagan, Trans.). In P. Ricoeur, Essays on biblical interpretation. Retrieved from https://www.religion-online.org/book-chapter/chapter-3-the-hermeneutics-of-testimony/

Rupel, D. (1980). Treća runda. In B. Krivokapić (Ed.), Treba li spaliti Kiša? (pp. 129–134). Zagreb: Globus. (1st edition 1977).

Shalamov, V. (1994). Kolyma tales (J. Glad, Trans.). London: Penguin Books.

Shell, M. (1993). The economy of literature. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Štajner, K. (1971). 7000 dana u Sibiru. Zagreb: Globus.

Tatarenko, A. (2008). U začaranom trouglu: Crnjanski, Kiš, Pekić: Eseji i studije. Zaječar: Matična biblioteka “Svetozar Marković”.

Thompson, M. (2013). Birth certificate: The story of Danilo Kiš. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Thompson, M. (2014). An alphabet for Danilo Kiš. Wasafiri, 29(2), 65–71. https://doi.org/10.1080/02690055.2014.885640

Visković, V. (1980). Kiševo umijeće nasljedovanja. In B. Krivokapić (Ed.), Treba li spaliti Kiša? (pp. 29–31). Zagreb: Globus. (1st edition 1976).




Copyright (c) 2019 Danijela Lugarić Vukas

License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/pl/