DOI: https://doi.org/10.11649/cs.1319

When “soul” is lost in translation: Metaphorical conceptions of “soul” in Dostoyevsky's original “Братья Карамазовы” (“The Brothers Karamazov”) and its translations into Polish, Croatian and English

Julia Ostanina-Olszewska, Kristina S. Despot

Abstract


When soul is lost in translation: Metaphorical conceptions of soul in Dostoyevsky’s original Братья Карамазовы (The Brothers Karamazov) and its translations into Polish, Croatian and English

Given that our understanding of such an abstract concept as soul is almost purely metaphorical, this paper provides a comparative cross-linguistic analysis of the system of metaphorical conceptions of soul in Dostoyevsky’s original Братья Карамазовы (The Brothers Karamazov) and its Polish, Croatian and English translations. Special attention is paid to those metaphors that are translated differently between the various translations, either in conceptual or linguistic terms.

This paper adheres to the cognitive-linguistic approach to Mind (Reddy, 1979; Sweetser, 1990; G. Lakoff & Johnson, 1999). Consistent with conceptual metaphor theory in general (G. Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; G. Lakoff, 1987; Grady, 1997; Kövecses, 2000; G. Lakoff, 2009; etc.), this paper’s theoretical and methodological approach is based on Sweetser’s (1990) analysis of the system of metaphors for knowledge, on G. Lakoff and Johnson’s (1999) systematic analysis of the metaphorical conceptions of Mind and Soul, and on Štrkalj Despot, Skrynnikova and Ostanina Olszewska’s (2014) comparative analysis of the metaphorical conceptions of ДУША/DUSZA/DUŠA (‘soul’) in Russian, Polish, and Croatian.

The metaphors for soul were examined in a parallel corpus that consists of Dostoyevsky’s original Братья Карамазовы (The Brothers Karamazov) and its Polish, Croatian and English translations. Linguistic metaphors were detected using the MIPVU procedure (Steen et al., 2010).

The main questions that this paper ains to answer are: Which metaphors for conceptualizing soul are shared by all the languages in question? Which metaphors are translated differently and why? If metaphors are translated differently, is the difference conceptual, cultural or linguistic? Does the type of metaphor (primary, complex) have any influence on the decision to translate the source language (SL) metaphor into a different one in the target language (TL)? What cultural differences are revealed through the analysis of the way metaphors have been translated to other Slavic and one non-Slavic language?

 

Pojęcie duszy zagubione w tłumaczeniu: Metaforyczne ujęcie duszy w oryginale powieści Братья Карамазовы (Bracia Karamazow) Fiodora Dostojewskiego oraz w jej tłumaczeniach na język polski, chorwacki oraz angielski

Rozumienie tak abstrakcyjnych pojęć, jak dusza jest w pełni metaforyczne. Niniejszy artykuł zawiera porównawczą, przekrojową analizę lingwistyczną systemu konceptualizacji pojęcia dusza w powieści Fiodora Dostojewskiego pt. Братья Карамазовы (Bracia Karamazow) oraz w jej polskim, chorwackim i angielskim tłumaczeniu. Zwrócono szczególną uwagę na te metafory, które zostały przetłumaczone inaczej w każdym wariancie tłumaczenia, pod względem pojęciowym albo językowym.

W artykule zastosowano kognitywno-lingwistyczne podejście do umysłu (Reddy, 1979; Sweetser, 1990; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), podejście teoretyczne i metodologiczne – zasadniczo spójne z teorią metafory pojęciowej (Lakoff i Johnson, 1980; Lakoff, 1987; Grady, 1997; Lakoff, 1999; Kövecses, 2000; Lakoff, 2009 i in.) – opiera się na analizie E. Sweetser (1990) dotyczącej systemu metafor wiedzy, systematycznej analizie G. Lakoffa i M. Johnsona (1999) dotyczącej metaforycznego pojmowania umysłu i duszy oraz na analizie porównawczej K. Štrkalj Despot, I. Skrynnikovej i J. Ostatniny-Olszewskiej (2014) pojęć metaforycznych ДУША/DUSZA/DUŠA (dusza) w językach rosyjskim, polskim i chorwackim.

Przeanalizowano metaforyczne określenia duszy w korpusie paralelnym, w którym znalazła się powieść Fiodora Dostojewskiego pt. Братья Карамазовы (Bracia Karamazow) w oryginale oraz jej przekłady na język polski, angielski i chorwacki. Metafory językowe wskazano, korzystając z procedury MIPVU (Steen i in., 2010).

Niniejsza analiza jest próbą odpowiedzi na następujące pytania: które metafory pojęcia dusza są tożsame we wszystkich analizowanych językach? Które metafory zostały przełożone w odmienny sposób i dlaczego tak się stało? Jeżeli metafory zostały przetłumaczone inaczej, czy jest to różnica pojęciowa, kulturowa czy językowa? Czy rodzaj metafory (podstawowa, złożona) wpływa na próbę przetłumaczenia metafory w języku źródłowym inną metaforą w języku docelowym? W jaki sposób metafory i rozumowanie metaforyczne w różnych językach wskazują na różnice i podobieństwa kulturowe w pojmowaniu świata?


Keywords


conceptual metaphor theory; parallel corpus; concept of soul; metaphorical mappings; metaphor and translation; cultural variation; linguistic variation

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