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Cultural Words in Sacral Text and their Translation: Linguistic and Extra-Linguistic Factors

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dc.contributor.author Хухуни, Георгий Т.
dc.contributor.author Валуйцева, Ирина И.
dc.contributor.author Осипова, Анна А.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-01-12T20:55:52Z
dc.date.available 2020-01-12T20:55:52Z
dc.date.issued 2019
dc.identifier.citation Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2019;23(2):487-508 en
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12528/1155
dc.description.abstract The purpose of this article is to study the issue of key features of the so-called cultural words (realia) in sacred texts (the Bible is taken as an example) as well as a distinctive nature of their cross-language transfer. This problem is essential not only for the Bible translation as such but it also enables to clarify some aspects related to the representation of the vocabulary with cultural identity in the target language that is explained by the very nature of the Old and New Testaments containing a wide variety of the realia that refer directly to a religious cult and to the everyday life of Palestinian people and their neighborhood in the Bible times. The material for the present research includes versions of the Holy Writ created in different periods in a number of languages (Latin, Church Slavonic, Russian and English). While analyzing, the classical trans-lations labelled often as “national” ones have been used (the King James Bible, Synodal Translation), as well and the versions created in the 20th and 21st centuries. The main approach applied herein is the identifying of the corresponding units in the said Bible texts, the ascertainment of the possibility of their ambivalent interpretation, the correlation within the considered versions of translation, the determination of translation strategies used for representing the realia and their comparative analysis. When considering the options presented, special attention has been paid to extra-linguistic factors, since they often play a decisive role in solving the said task. The key results of the made survey can be formulated as follows: 1) since translations could have been made from different versions of the source text, there are cases when certain realia are available in some translations but are missing in others; 2) the use of transcription / trans-literation of the realia in Russian versions of the Old Testament in some cases is determined by their representation in the Greek and Church Slavonic texts of the Bible and therefore in both the Synodal and the new translations they can be presented in a form different from that available in European languages; 3) the representation of the Greek word diopetês (fallen from heaven) as the proper name Diopet in the Synodal Translation is usually qualified as an elementary mistake, but it could have been also provoked by an inten-tion to follow Greek and Church Slavonic traditions; 4) the existence of the so-called ‘undefined realia’ in the source text, an exact meaning of which is not known, causes their various interpretations in the target language; 5) during the analysis of the units of the target language used in the translation of the Holy Writ, the diachronic aspect must be taken into account considering, on the one hand, the possibility of losing or changing the meaning in the course of linguistic evolution, and on the other hand, avoiding vesting the reality with the meaning that it could not have; 6) a number of translations made in recent decades are characterized by a pronounced pragmatic orientation, in some cases causing a significant neutralization of the national-cultural specificity or its adaptation to the corresponding cultural environment, the degree of admissibility of which in some cases is controversial. The above items enable to clarify a number of aspects related to the methods of translating the realia and the importance of such aspects for attaining the transla-tion adequacy. en
dc.language.iso other en
dc.publisher Russian Journal of Linguistics en
dc.subject nazwy realiów pl
dc.subject literatura religijna pl
dc.subject Biblia pl
dc.subject przekład pl
dc.subject neutralizacja pl
dc.subject język łaciński pl
dc.subject język cerkiewnosłowiański pl
dc.subject język rosyjski pl
dc.subject język angielski pl
dc.subject realia en
dc.subject sacral literature en
dc.subject the Bible en
dc.subject translation en
dc.subject neutralization en
dc.subject Latin language en
dc.subject Church Slavonic language en
dc.subject Russian language en
dc.subject English language en
dc.title Cultural Words in Sacral Text and their Translation: Linguistic and Extra-Linguistic Factors en
dc.title.alternative Интерпретация реалий при переводе сакрального текста: языковой и экстралингвистический аспекты ru
dc.type Article en


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